Figure 1. Basic box flow diagram for sulfate TiO2 manufacturing process. 


Sulfate process is one of the processes for producing Titanium Dioxide (Anatase and Rutile).
For sulfate process, ilmenite (FeTiO3) has been used as a feedstock material. The inlet stream is reacted with concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to extract the converted Titanium Oxygen Sulfate (TiOSO4). Such reaction can be observed as equation 1 listed below: 


FeTiO3+ 2H2SO4 --> FeSO4 + TiOSO4 + 2H2O---------------------------------------Eq.(1).


Then the by-product, Iron (II) Sulfate, will be removed. Due to the insolubility of the FeSO4 at low temperatures, the solution is cooled to 15C and crystallization was performed in-order to filter the remaining by-product.  Consequently, the aqueous digestion products were heated to 110C in-order to hydrolyze the Titanium Oxygen Sulfate. Thus sulfuric acid and hydrated Titanium Dioxide was produced (Equation 2).


TiOSO4+ H2O --> TiO2nH2O +H2SO4---------------------------------------------------Eq.(2).


Lastly, hydrated Titanium Dioxide is heated to remove the excess water and consequently yield the crystallized Anatase or Rutile (Equation 3).


TiO2nH2O --> TiO2 + nH2O-----------------------------------------------------------------Eq.(3).


About Sulfate Process